Saturday, June 27, 2015

Melbourne's Indigenous Placenames

Melbourne's European history is short.

The first explorers began surveying the coast in the 17th century, and the first short lived settlement was attempted at Sorrento in 1803. A more permanent township was established by ambitious pastoralists in 1835.

As a city, we haven't even reached our bicentenary.

But human occupation of what became Port Phillip Bay stretches back much farther back than this.

The five Nations that make up the Kulin Nation.

Melbourne's Indigenous population established itself in the area between 31 000 and 40 000 years ago. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the land around Port Phillip Bay was home to five individual Indigenous Nations, who peacefully co-existed under the banner of the Kulin Nation. Each of these Nations had their own language and traditions, although there was some overlap between their cultural traits.

The arrival of farmers, merchants and soldiers would change the local Indigenous way of life forever. But, as a small  reminder that local history did not start in 1835, our modern city is still dotted with a number of Indigenous place names. A short selection of these:


This suburb in Melbourne's inner east can trace the route of its name to the Bolin Bolin Billabong, a key watering hole for the area's original Indigenous inhabitants. The Billabong is still in existance, now lying in... Bulleen Park,


Bundoora is an Indigenous word, normally translated as 'Place where kangaroos live.'

Carrum/Carrum Downs

The name Carrum is linked to the Indigenous word 'Karrum', a the local name for a boomerang.

The Eastern Brown Snake, common in Melbourne's outskirts.


North of the CBD, the suburb of Coolaro takes its name for the local Indigenous word for a brown snake.


All the different iterations of Dandenong (suburb, mountain, shire council) can be traced to the Wurundjeri word 'Tanjenong', which was the local name for the creek that ran out of the ranges towards the Yarra.

The Welcome Swallow, one of several species common in Melbourne.


This shire council in Melbourne's inner north takes its name from the Indigenous word for 'Swallows', a common bird in the area.

Koo Wee Rup

On the southern outskirts of the city, Koo Wee Rup is derived from the Indigenous name for this area Kowe Nerup; Kowe, meaning blackfish, and Nerup meaning swimming. So this was a swampy area, and a traditional fishing ground for the area's first inhabitants.


Blue blood suburb Kooyong was named by Government surveyor Robert Hoddle after the Kooyong Koot Creek (now Gardiner's Creek). Kooyong is an Indiegnous word meaning camp, or resting place.


This inner city suburb is named after it's dominant feature; the Maribyrnong River, which was originally dubbed 'Saltwater Creek' by the first European Settlers. The Indigenous name for the river is Mirring-Gnay-Bir-Nong, which was adopted for both river and suburb in the late 19th century.


This green, outer suburban fruit production belt takes the Indigenous name for the area; 'Monbulk' was a word used to indicate the granite cliffs that were subsequently quarried by European settlers.


South of Melbourne, this area was known as 'Mooroobin' by the local Indigenous population, which was adopted as the name for the first cattle run established in the area by John King.

Nar Nar Goon

On the eastern fringe of the city, Nar Nar Goon is named after a local Indigenous name for the koala, prevalent in the area in pre-European times.

Narre Warren

Narre Warren was the Indigenous name for this area, loosely translated as 'hilly country.'


Nunawading was the traditional name for this area east of the city, which was a word that indicated a ceremonial ground. While the first settlers adopted this name when they arrived in the area in 1854, Nunawading was then given the more English sounding name of  'Tunstall' in the 1870s. The original name was restored in 1945.

Tullamareena's escape, depicted by W.Liardet (1840)

The suburb best known as home to Melbourne's airport was named after Wurundjeri elder Tullamareena, who was present when John Batman first sailed up the Yarra, and who lived in this area. In 1838, Tullamareena was arrested for stealing sheep, and imprisoned in the Melbourne jail. He escaped shortly afterwards, and took revenge on his captors by setting fire to the wooden structure, burning it to the ground. Recaptured, Tullamareena was then sent by ship to Sydney for trial (the standard process in the very early days of Melbourne, when there was no local magistrate). When the local authorities realised he understood no English, he was acquitted and set free... in Sydney, a thousand kilometres from his home. No further contact was recorded with Tullamareena, and his fate is unknown.

Yarra River

The naming of Melbourne's most famous geographical feature is based on a misunderstanding. The first European settlers thought that 'Yarra Yarra' was the local name for the river that they sailed up from the coast, when, in fact, it was subsequently found that this referred only to the small waterfall, that used to tumble gently near Elizabeth Street. By the time this misunderstanding was discovered, the name Yarra had already stuck.

Wednesday, June 24, 2015

The Carnegie Library

American industrialist Andrew Carnegie seems almost like the epitome of the old fashioned American dream.

Born into a poor family in Scotland in 1835, Carnegie came to America with his family in 1848, where they settled in Pennsylvania. Leaving school at 13, Carnegie took a series of menial jobs, working in a cotton factory, then as a telegraph runner, before landing a job for the railways in 1853. A hard worker, conscientious and dedicated, Carnegie then began a rapid rise through the ranks, and was secretary of the Pennsylvania division of the railroad company by the time he was 20.

Carnegie in 1878.

Around this time, he also came under the influence of Colonel James Anderson, a local philanthropist, who allowed young people access to his voluminous private library. Anderson took a liking to Carnegie, and offered him personal, and financial, advice, serving as a mentor to the ambitious young man. Thrifty with money, Carnegie soon had some capital behind him, that Anderson helped him turn into a series of profitable investments in local businesses.

The success of these investments allowed larger, and more lucrative outlays, culminating in a
$40 000 investment in a local oil company. Within 2 years, this speculation would yield more than $1 million in returns. Carnegie parleyed his now considerable wealth into a major investment in heavy industry, founding the Union Steel company, whose rapid growth would make his major fortune. When Carnegie eventually sold Union Steel to JP Morgan in 1901 for $480 million, he was the wealthiest person on earth.

In shorthand, this is the story of Andrew Carnegie, business magnate.

Carnegie in retirement.

But in his later years, Carnegie would take on a new guise; that of wealthy benefactor

Carnegie never forgot his modest background, nor the generosity of Colonel Thompson that had helped him on his way. As his involvement in his business was delegated away, Carnegie dedicated himself to philanthropy and, by the time of his death in 1919, had given away some 90% of his enormous fortune to charitable causes.

One of his favourite philanthropic endeavours were the Carnegie Libraries.

The first Carnegie Library; Dunfermline, Scotland

Conscious of the role that Colonel Anderson's private library had played in his own development, Carnegie founded an ambitious program of library construction. The object was to provide a free source of knowledge, available to anyone, regardless of their means or social status. The first Carnegie Library opened in his old home town of Dunfermline, in Scotland, in 1886, and the first in his adopted country in Braddock, Pennsylvania (a town dominated by a Union Steel mill).

The libraries were not provided without conditions, and a number of eligibility criteria had to be met; the town had to be without a public library already, and be willing to provide a site for the building free of charge. And the local authorities also had to commit to providing an annual budget for the continued running of the institution. Nevertheless, many towns and cities were willing to meet these criteria, and eventually more than 2 500 Carnegie Libraries would be built, right across the world.

The Northcote Library Comittee.

In Northcote, in the inner northern suburbs of Melbourne, the need for a new library was keenly felt. From 1883 a room in the Northcote Town Hall had been set aside as a public library, but this had proved inadequate for the growing community. In 1907, the Northcote Library Committee approached the Andrew Carnegie Foundation, and submitted a formal request for funds for a new library building. A site adjacent to the Town Hall, at 185 High Street, was offered, and an annual budget of 200 pounds for running costs agreed to.

With some back and forth over the particulars, the application was approved, and 3 000 pounds allocated to the committee from the Foundation. Construction was completed in 1911, and the library was opened August 21, 1911 by the Governor of Victoria, Sir John Fuller.

The Carnegie Library in Northcote, shortly after completion.

The new building featured a classical facade, while the interior had designated rooms for newspapers, magazines, books and study. It would continue to operate through most of the 20th century, before the library again outgrew its location. In 1985, the Northcote Library was moved to a (considerably less stylish) location on Separation Street, while the Carnegie Library was converted into Darebin City Council offices.

The site today.

After his death, Carnegie's left much of his fortune in trusts, which are still used today for a wide variety of charitable causes.

Saturday, June 6, 2015

The Mysterious Sydney Harbour Column

Two more days in Sydney, so time for a couple more posts...

One of Sydney's most scenic harbour walks runs from the Taronga Ferry Wharf, round to Chowder Bay. The first stretch gives stunning views back to Sydney Harbour, while the approach to Chowder Bay itself is through native bush, interspersed with glimpses of some secluded foreshore.

Harbour view near the start of the walk.

Around the halfway mark, at Bradley's Head, this mysterious sight appears:

A Grecian style column, plonked in the water. What is it doing there?

The first Post Office in Sydney was built by Governor Lachlan Macquarie on land that, so the story goes, he acquired for a hogshead of brandy (a hogshead was a term for a volume of liquor, dating from the 15th century, roughly indicating a large cask). The new post office was a stylish, if somewhat severe, building, on George Street in mid-town.

Sydney's first post office.

But the needs of the growing colony soon overwhelmed the capacity of this building. Post was the only means of communication with the outside world in the 19th century, so a larger premises was needed to handle the increasing volume of mail. A bigger, and grander, GPO was built on Martin Place in 1862.

Sydney's second post office.

While the first Post Office was then demolished, someone had the foresight to preserve the striking Doric columns from the front of the building. In 1871, one of these was erected at Bradley's Head as a navigational aid, marking one nautical mile from the naval fortification of Fort Denison.

Fort Denison in Sydney Harbour.

Mystery solved.

Another column from the old post office was erected in Crow's Nest, in line of sight with Sydney Observatory across the harbour. This column was used as a marker to help astronomers calculate time, during lengthy observations. This column had to be moved when the Sydney harbour tunnel was built in 1988, and now stands on Mount Street, North Sydney.

The column at Mount Street Plaza.

Three other columns from the post office were sold into private ownership, and used as part of the facade of a mansion near Centennial Park. When this house was demolished these columns were moved to Vaucluse House, from where they subsequently disappeared. 

Their current location is still unknown.

Friday, June 5, 2015

Sydney's Wonderful Demolished Buildings

One of the first posts that I made on this blog was a look back at some of the buildings that Melbourne has lost over the years; our stylish architectural heritage that is no more, for a variety of reasons. It's a topic that, sadly, provided a lot of material.

So while I am in Sydney this week it seemed like a good time to revisit the concept, now applied to Australia's largest city. And, as you might expect, there are many more lost wonders to consider. The following is just a sample.


Royal Botanic Gardens

A photo of The Palace, shortly after construction.

A drawing of the opening of the Exhibition.

Built in 1879 for the Sydney International  Exhibition, on high ground in The Domain, the Garden Palace was the harbour city's answer to the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne (both buildings commenced construction February 1879). Mirroring London's famous Crystal Palace, the hall had a basic cross design, augmented by a 65 metre tall dome on the eastern side. Construction was round the clock - by arc neon lights at night, a first for Australia - and took only 8 months, costing the state Government a monumental 191 000 pounds.

It was described as the grandest building constructed in Australia to that time, and dominated Sydney's skyline.

The exhibition that followed was to prove a runaway success, with more than a million attendees. The displays were fairly modest, but provided a basic showcase of Australian agriculture and industry, with a few exhibits from the US and England providing some international flavour (most of these were re-used at the Melbourne Exhibition the following year). Once the exhibition was over, the building was put to use housing Government records.

An artists impression of the fire.

In the early hours of September 22, 1882, a nightwatchman on patrol saw smoke coming from the Palace's dome. The alarm was raised, but by the time the fire brigade arrived the largely timber building was already engulfed in flame. The fire burnt out later in the day, leaving almost no remnants of the building behind (and also destroying an estimated 3000 plants, in the adjoining Botanic Gardens). An enquiry was not able to determine the cause of the fire, although there was widespread speculation that it was deliberately lit.

A photo of the aftemath shows the complete destruction of the building.

This part of the city has been dramatically re-shaped since the late 19th century, but the overlay below gives some idea of where the building would have been positioned on the modern landscape. The second photo shows the corner in the bottom right of the overlay photo.

Overlay of the building on the present site (Source: Sydney Morning Herald)

The corner today.


Corner Young, Bent and Phillip Streets

Built in 1890 for a hefty 150 000 pounds, The Metropole was, at the time, considered Sydney's finest hotel. Its 260 rooms were sumptuously furnished, and the public areas were decorated with imported ceramic tiles and stained glass windows. It also featured a rooftop garden, offering views across the city, then something of a novelty. Writers Rudyard Kipling and Jack London were among the notable guests (there is a story that London complained about the hotel staff refusing to provide him with an extra candle). The building was demolished in 1969 to make way for a skyscraper, itself replaced in 1992 with Governor Macquarie Tower.

The CAGA Building was built on the site after the Metropole was demolished.

Governor Macquarie Tower replaced the CAGA Building in 1992.


88 Bridge Street

Founded in England in 1865, the New Zealand Loan & Mercantile Agency was a finance company with offices in  Sydney and Melbourne, along with several branches in NZ. The Sydney office pictured above, in a striking Victorian Mannerist building, opened in 1876 (although the picture used is from the 1930's). I was unable to find any information indicating specifically when the building was demolished, although the company merged with Dalgety and Co in 1961, so it is reasonable to assume that they relocated offices at that time. In this case, it also seems likely the building may have been one of many demolished in the redevelopment push of the 1960's. The site today:


367 George Street

The Australian Bank of Commerce was one of many financial institutions fighting for business in Colonial Sydney. Their grand premises above opened in 1884, and was often considered one of Sydney's finest 19th century buildings. The attrition rate for these early banks was enormous, and the Bank of Commerce was absorbed by the much larger English Scottish and Australian Bank (ES & A) in the 1920's. ES & A maintained it's George Street office until 1970, when the company merged with the Australia New Zealand Banking Group. The building was then torn down and replaced with a modern office building, which was restyled into Sydney's Apple store in 2009:

The replacement building from the 1970s.

The site today.


62 Pitt Street

The building to the left of the above photo (the grand one in the centre is still standing) was the Sydney office of this British firm, which billed itself as the world's largest insurance provider in the late 19th century. The exact date of construction is uncertain, although the company was incorporated in Sydney in 1865. Photos of the original building are also scarce, although the Art Gallery of NSW does have a pencil sketch of it, by J.Watman.

The building was demolished in 1960 and replaced with a more modern office building, which may have fitted the era it was built but now looks horribly dated.

Demolition in progress, January 1960.

The site today.


Corner George & Wynyard Streets

The Colonial Mutual insurance group had a habit of building grand offices for themselves, and their original headquarters in Sydney was no different. Built in 1891, the six story office building was the city's tallest at the time, although it was shortly after superseded. The building was made primarily of sandstone quarried in nearby Pyrmont, with columns of granite imported from Scotland, at great expense. The building also featured modern lifts (still a rarity at this time), and a new kind of fire proofing, which involved the internal metal structures being encased in terra cotta. The building was demolished in 1969 to make way for the rather plain headquarters of the Bank of New Zealand. This building was itself demolished in 2014:

The Bank of New Zealand Building.

The site again under redevelopment.


Corner Market and Yorke Streets

Henry Bull was a local boy made good; in 1862 the young merchant married into Sydney's most prestigious family when he took Hannah Hordern as his wife. Hannah was the daughter of Anthony Hordern jr whose father, Anthony sr, had founded the retail company that had made the family fortune. Expanding from domestic wares (see below), by the end of the 19th century the Hordern's were involved in real estate, farming and finance, and family members had been elected to State Parliament, The Henry Bull building was built in 1904, and marked Henry's efforts to strike out on his own. The rather grand building depicted above was actually a warehouse, used for the receipt and dispatch of a variety of goods. The 53 metre tall tower, one of the highest in the city, was used for water storage. The building was demolished in 1973, an age of carnage for buildings of this vintage, and replaced by the bland St Martins Tower:


230 Pitt Street

Designed by Charles Blackhouse and built in 1896, The Palace was a multipurpose venue that had been originally attached to the sprawling Tattersalls Hotel. Government regulation at the time prohibited live venues from selling alcohol - patrons were required to exit a theatre and then re-enter a drinking establishment via a different door - a requirement that the proprietors circumvented by building a tiny laneway between the theatre and the hotel, that customers could step over. Starting with live music, comedy and vaudeville, after World War II The Palace was used primarily as a cinema, although a famous production of 'Who's Afraid of Virginia Wolf?' was also staged there, in 1964. While opulently decorated, The Palace's small capacity, 775 seats, meant it was always a precarious commercial prospect. It was demolished in 1970 as part of a major redevelopment of this block, with the Hilton Hotel group leveling most of it to build a new property. The location today:


Between George and Pitt Streets

Lost to the same large scale project as The Palace was the Royal Arcade, one of a number of classic Sydney Arcades that are no more (The Strand is the last remaining 19th century example). Designed by Thomas Rowe and built in 1882, The Royal was opened with great fanfare; Premier Henry Parkes presided over the public ceremony, which was followed by an enormous banquet with tables lining the arcade floor. The three story arcade featured high end retail on the ground floor, topped with two floors of offices. Gas lighting was augmented by a glass roof, and the walls were lavishly decorated with hand crafted wood paneling. Retailers were prohibited from displaying goods outside their shops, to preserve the arcade's appearance. When it was demolished in 1970 it was the oldest arcade in Sydney. Where the George Street entrance to the arcade would have been, today:


487 - 503 George Street

Opening in 1928, the 2 297 seat Regent was cinema chain Hoyts' flagship venue in Sydney. The interior was particularly opulent, and the art deco crystal chandelier in the foyer a minor city icon.

In the 1950's the cinema was sold by Hoyts and had several subsequent owners, changing hands every few years. The Regent showed mainstream, first run cinema releases through most of it's life span, but in the 1970's it diversified into live performance; stage musicals, concerts and even opera. By the 1980's The Regent's final owners, the Fink family, had decided to close the theatre and sell the property (the final session was a screening of the documentary 'Ski Time', in May 1984). 

The Regent; closed and awaiting its fate.

But the State Government had placed a temporary development ban on the property while its heritage value was assessed. This turned into a protracted court battle, lasting more than 4 years, while a public campaign was mounted to try and save the building. During this limbo period, the building stood empty and gradually fell into disrepair. When the development ban was finally lifted in 1988, the poor condition of the property was one of the reasons cited. The Regent was finally demolished later that year.

Incredibly, a slump in the Sydney property market then meant that the newly vacant land went undeveloped for more than 15 years! A new commercial property was finally built on the site in 2004:


Corner George and Liverpool Streets

And here we return to the Hordern family, and specifically their remarkable department store in central Sydney. Patriarch Anthony Hordern traveled to America in 1878 and, impressed by what he had seen there, returned to Australia determined to dramatically expand his operations. The enormous Palace Emporium was one expression of this desire. The first Emporium was built in 1879 but, when this burnt down in 1901, Hordern's heirs (Anthony passed away in 1886) simply rebuilt in even grander style. The Palace Emporium filled an entire city block, and was one of the largest department stores in the world.

The original Palace Emporium.

After the original building burnt down.

But in the second half of the 20th century, the Hordern's business fortunes began to wane. Increasing competition, and the popularity of American style mall shopping in the suburbs, pushed the company's city retail chain into the red. In the late 1960's Hordern's shops were sold off; most of them taken over by the retail chain 'Walton's' (itself now defunct), while some were bought by smaller chains and independent operators.

The Emporium site, after demolition.

The Palace Emporium was demolished in the 1980's to make way for the 'World Square' development, a much delayed project worthy of its own discussion. After multiple changes of developer, much government intervention, and two decades of intermittent construction, World Square finally opened in 2004: